The Gerund denumește, de obicei, o acțiune s i m u l t a n ă  cu acțiunea verbului predicativ. 

Forma perfectă having + vb-3rd form indică o acțiune anterioară verbului predicativ. Este o formă care apare mai rar și în special după verbul to deny (a nega).

She denied having called him. – A negat că l-ar fi chemat

Există situații în care raportul de a n t e r i o r i t a t e  poate fi exprimat de GERUND:

I can′t remember ringing/having rung him up. (Nu-mi amintesc să-l fi chemat)
I’ll never forgive him for calling/ having calling me names. (N-am să-l iert niciodată că m-a insultat)
The thanked me for helping/having helped them. (Mi-au mulțumit că i-am ajutat)

Gerundul se întrebuințează după:

a. prepozițiile: after, before, by, about, for, from, on, of, without

On waking up, he began to recolect all the last night’s events.
She keeps fit by jogging every day for an hour.
Speak loud and clear without shouting.
You won’t keep her from doing that.

b. substantive cu prepoziție

I had so much confidence in his winning the grand award.
I didn’t have the opportunity of knowing him.

c. adjective cu prepoziție

She was delighted at winning the first prize.
I am used to getting up early in the morning.

d. verbe cu prepoziție

The exercise aimed at strengthening our skills.
He was accused of lying.
They insisted on seeing us off.
I’m looking forward to seeing you again.
All the measures contributed to developing good relations among the c0-workers.

e. cuvintele și expresiile:

to be busy
to be worth
to be no good
to be no use
to be useless
to feel like
that is
there is 
there is little/ much/ no 
would you mind
to be in a …vb-ing mood
in spite of  
to be on the point of

f. după următoarele verbe:

-tranzitive: to admit, to avoid, to consider, to deny, to detest, to escape, to fancy, to finish, to give up, to like, to miss, to postpone, to practise, to put off, to resent, to resist, to  risk, to suggest, to want
– activitate mentală: to forget, to remember, to understand etc.
– care indică stare sufletească: to dread, to hate, to dislike, to like, to love, to neglect, to prefer, to regret
– care indică un proces: to plan, to try, to undertake etc.
– care indică continuarea: to continue
– care indică sfârșitul acțiunii: to cease,  to end, to stop

g. după construcțiile:

can’t bear = a nu nu suporta să
can’t help = nu se poate să nu
can’t stand = a nu suporta să
what/how about = ce-ar fi să
it needs/ wants = trebuie să îl/ o
there is no harm in… = nu e nimic rău în