Therefore, the first step in translating a text is the discourse analysis, which in 1990s, became very important in the translation analysis as it determines.

Cohesion, coherence informativity, acceptability, situationality, intertextuality and intentionality are the <standards of textuality>, which are essential in achieving the aim of communication.

Cohesion is the system of lexical, grammatical, and other relations that provide links between words and expressions to other words and expressions in a text. The lexic and the grammar- the surface components – are essential in establishing and maintaining the text continuity. Complex texts often change genre types or other constituency strategies, creating sub-units within a text. Therefore, the cohesion has to provide a principal means of creating semantic continuity across these segmental boundaries within a text.

The cohesion is ensured by the discourse-connectives, which act as markers of a ‘transparent inter-sentential structure’. Some of the markers take the form of the illocutionary particles, while others of different instances of anaphora – pronouns or adverbs that refer the words mentioned before and, though in individual sentences, they link the sentences in a larger text.

Titles, paragraphs, sub-headings, cross-references also contribute to the unity of the discourse linking the parts of the text.

Coherence is closely connected to cohesion – they are the major notions in discourse analysis – and ensures the ties between sentences, paragraphs at the level of the entire text; according to Hoey (1991) ‘…cohesion is objective, capable in principle of automatic recognition, while coherence is subjective and judgments concerning it may vary from reader to reader.’ Many times, the coherence of a text is a result of the interaction between the text and the reader’s knowledge and experience of the world.

Informativity is the texts’ ability to convey new information or knowledge. The degree of a text informativity is rendered by the time the text was written. In the translation process, informativity is very important as sometimes certain notions and concepts are impossible to be  translated in a Target Language (TL) as they do not have a familiar equivalent, or because of the socio-cultural gaps or simply because they have a different connotation in TL.

Acceptability refers to the reader’s attitude about a text. Beaugrande and Dressler explain acceptability as follows: “Acceptability concerns the text receiver’s attitude that the set of occurrences should constitute a cohesive and coherent text having some use or relevance for the receiver. Factors involved include text type, social or cultural setting, and the desirability of the intended goals.” Acceptability implies the reader’s ability to understand the text. Therefore, acceptability and informativity are in close connections.

Situationality – the central principle in translations – is relevant to a particular social and pragmatic context.

Intentionality is centered on the reader. The text-producer usually establishes his on a given plan. The entire structure of the text serves the author’s intention. Intentionality actually establishes the direction of a text: argumentative, explanatory, descriptive, expository, etc.

Intertextual level is the level of external relations between a particular text and other texts within a given culture as no text exists in total isolation from other texts. Even an extremely innovative text cannot fail to form part of an overall body of literature by which the impact and originality of individual texts are coloured and defined[1].

Therefore, the translator has first to identify the text producer’s rhetorical purpose by defining the context – the register, intentionality and intertextuality. However, the text does not present the features of only one type as they shift from one type to another.[2] We actually define a text typology according to the features that prevail in the text.

[1] Hervey, Sándor; Higgins, Ian – Thinking Spanish Translation, Routledge LTD

[2] Hatim, Basil and Mason, Ian, The Translator as Communicator, Rutledger